What is Meningitis?
Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis can quickly turn life-threatening if not promptly diagnosed and treated. For families impacted by a delay in meningitis diagnosis or treatment, understanding the potential consequences and legal rights is paramount. The medical malpractice attorneys of Lupetin & Unatin, have extensive experience handling medical negligence lawsuits for patients injured or killed due to failures or delays in diagnosing various forms of meningitis.
What are the Different Types of Meningitis?
There are various types of meningitis:
Bacterial Meningitis: Can be severe and may result in brain damage, hearing loss, or even death if not treated promptly.
Several different bacteria can cause meningitis. The most common ones include:
- Neisseria meningitidis: Causes meningococcal meningitis and can lead to epidemics. Young adults and college students living in dormitories are at a slightly increased risk.
- Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus): This is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in infants, young children, and adults in the U.S. and can also lead to conditions like pneumonia, ear infections, and sinusitis.
- Haemophilus influenzae: Prior to the development of a vaccine, this was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children.
- Listeria monocytogenes: Found in soft cheeses, unpasteurized milk, and deli meats. This can be especially harmful in pregnant women, where it might lead to miscarriage or stillbirth.
Viral Meningitis: Often less severe and can be resolved without specific treatment.
Viral meningitis can be caused by various viruses. Common ones include:
- Enteroviruses: These are the most common cause of viral meningitis and are usually transmitted through fecal-oral contact, often in places like swimming pools or daycare centers.
- Herpesviruses: Including herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus (which causes chickenpox and shingles), and Epstein-Barr virus (linked to infectious mononucleosis).
- Arboviruses: Transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks, these can cause diseases like West Nile, La Crosse, and St. Louis encephalitis.
- Mumps virus: Especially in unvaccinated populations.
Fungal Meningitis: Is a rare type of meningitis caused by a fungal infection. It results in inflammation of the membranes (meninges) covering the brain and spinal cord. Unlike viral and bacterial meningitis, fungal meningitis is not contagious from person to person, but rather results from the introduction of fungal agents into the body.
Several fungi can lead to meningitis, with the specific type often varying based on geographic location. Common causes include:
- Cryptococcus neoformans: This is the most common cause of fungal meningitis, especially in people with compromised immune systems, like those with HIV/AIDS.
- Coccidioides: This fungus is found in soil in certain parts of the U.S., particularly the Southwest. It causes coccidioidomycosis or “Valley Fever.”
- Histoplasma: Found in bird and bat droppings, especially in the Midwest along the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys.
- Blastomyces: Found in the Midwest and the southern U.S.
Fungal meningitis can also be linked to contaminated medical products. For instance, there were outbreaks associated with contaminated steroid injections in the past.
What Are Common Symptoms of Meningitis?
Common symptoms across all types of meningitis include:
- Fever and chills
- Stiff neck: Difficulty flexing the neck forward.
- Sensitivity to light (photophobia)
- Nausea and vomiting
- Altered mental state: Confusion, drowsiness, or difficulty concentrating.
- Fatigue or lethargy
- Skin rash: Not always present but can be a key indicator in meningococcal meningitis.
In infants and younger children, the symptoms can include:
- Poor feeding
- High-pitched crying
- A bulge in the soft spot on the head (fontanelle)
- Unusual posture with the head and neck arched backward
How is Meningitis Diagnosed?
The diagnosis of meningitis requires doctors and healthcare providers to obtain a detailed and complete medical history from the patient. The doctor must perform a proper physical examination and document key objective findings. If available, the doctor or healthcare provider should review the patient’s prior medical records in search for clues indicating the potential cause of the patient’s symptoms. The doctor must then form a differential diagnosis aimed at narrowing down the list of potential medical conditions that may explain the patient’s presentation and symptoms.
To rule in or out meningitis, the doctor may perform a number of tests including:
- Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap): This is the most definitive way to diagnose meningitis. A needle is inserted into the lower spine to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The fluid is then analyzed for white blood cells, glucose, protein, and the specific causative agent (bacteria, virus, or fungus).
- Blood Tests: Used to identify the specific bacteria or virus causing the meningitis.
- Imaging: CT or MRI scans can be done to check for swelling, abscesses, or any other complications.
How is Meningitis Treated?
The treatment varies depending on the type of meningitis:
- Immediate antibiotic treatment is crucial. The specific antibiotic depends on the causative bacteria.
- Corticosteroids, like dexamethasone, might be used to decrease inflammation.
- Supportive care: This includes fluids, pain medications, fever reducers, and other measures to maintain vital functions.
- Supportive care is the primary treatment, as most cases of viral meningitis resolve on their own.
- For specific viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, antiviral medications like acyclovir might be prescribed.
- Antifungal medications, like amphotericin B or fluconazole, are used to treat fungal meningitis.
- Treatment duration can be prolonged, often several weeks to months.
Additionally, the performance of a lumbar puncture can serve as a form of treatment by relieving the dangerous pressure that can sometimes develop from meningitis.
The Risks of Delayed Diagnosis and Treatment
Time is of the essence when dealing with suspected meningitis. A delayed diagnosis or treatment of meningitis can lead to:
- Severe brain damage
- Hearing or vision loss
- Memory difficulty
- Learning disabilities
- Gait problems
With such grave potential outcomes, it’s evident that timely medical intervention is paramount.
Medical Malpractice and Meningitis
While doctors and medical professionals work tirelessly to provide the best care possible, mistakes unfortunately do occur. Some common reasons for delays in diagnosing or treating meningitis include:
- Misdiagnosis: Mistaking meningitis for another less severe illness.
- Failing to recognize symptoms: Especially in infants and young children.
- Not performing the necessary tests: Such as a lumbar puncture to check for the presence of meningitis.
- Failing to provide immediate treatment: Once meningitis is diagnosed.
If a medical professional’s negligence results in a delay in diagnosing or treating meningitis, and this delay leads to adverse health outcomes, it may be a case of medical malpractice.
Notable Medical Malpractice Jury Verdicts for Delays in Diagnosing and Treating Meningitis
$1.7 million jury verdict awarded to the family of a deceased 3-month-old due to an emergency physician’s delay in diagnosing pneumococcal meningitis.
$27 million jury verdict awarded to an Iowa man after an urgent care clinic misdiagnosed the flu and failed to diagnose him with a meningitis infection that ultimately resulted in permanent brain damage.
$19 million jury verdict for failure to diagnose bacterial meningitis in a newborn that led to severe brain damage.
Understanding Your Rights
If you or a loved one suffered from the effects of a delayed meningitis diagnosis or treatment, you might be entitled to compensation for:
- Medical expenses
- Loss of wages
- Pain and suffering
- Long-term care needs
- Other related damages
It is essential to consult with a skilled medical malpractice attorney to understand your rights and the potential for a claim.
Meningitis is a severe and potentially deadly condition. Timely diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensuring the best possible outcomes. Medical professionals owe their patients a duty of care, and when they fall short, they must be held accountable.
If you suspect medical malpractice related to a meningitis case, reach out to a seasoned attorney to discuss your options. Delayed diagnosis of meningitis lawsuits are complicated, hotly contested by the doctors and hospital, and difficult to win. The attorneys of Lupetin & Unatin, have the experience you need to help you through the process of prosecuting and winning your medical malpractice lawsuit.